This is the Generation of Computer Development that You Should Know

The first generation of computers

Development of computer generation before 1940

In the era before 1940, the use of calculating aids was still very high simple and manual,

1. Abacus

Appeared about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places to date, can be considered as the beginning of the machine computing. This tool allows users to perform calculations using shear grains arranged on a shelf.Para merchants in those days used the abacus to count transactions trading. Along with the advent of pencil and paper, especially in Europe, Abacus lost its popularity.

2. Numeric wheel calculator

After nearly 12 centuries, another invention emerged in terms of computing machines. In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), then aged 18 years old, invented what he calls the numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father do tax calculation. This brass square called the Pascaline, uses eight serrated wheels to add up the numbers up to eight digits. This tool is a -based number calculator ten. The weakness of this tool is that it is only limited to doing summation.

3. Numerical wheel calculator 2

In 1694, the German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfred Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) improved the Pascaline by making machines which can multiply. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical tool work using gear wheels. By studying notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz can perfect the tool.

4. Mechanical Calculator

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar invents a machine that can performs four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculator, arithometer, represents a more practical approach in calculations because the tool can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With its capabilities, many arithometers used until the time of World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build the era of mechanical computing. Figure 6. Mechanical Calculator

This is the Generation of Computer Development that You Should Know

The development of the computer generation after 1940

1. The first generation of computers ( 1940-1959 ).

This first generation of computers used vacuum tubes to process and store data. This tool heats up fast and easy burns, therefore thousands of vacuum tubes are required to run the entire computer operation. This tool also requires a lot of electric power that causes electrical disturbances in the area surroundings. This first generation computer is 100% electronic and helpful experts in solving calculation problems quickly and appropriate.

2. Second generation computers (1959-1964)

In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced computer development. The transistor replaced the vacuum tube in television, radios and computers. As a result, the size of electric machines is reduced drastic. Transistors began to be used in computers starting in 1956. Another discovery is the development of magnetic-core memory assisting the development of smaller, more powerful second-generation computers faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than para predecessor. The first machine to take advantage of this new technology was supercomputer.

IBM makes a supercomputer called Stretch, and Sprery-Rand makes computer called LARC. These computers, which were developed for atomic energy laboratories, can handle large amounts of data big. These machines are very expensive and tend to be too complex to business computing needs, thus limiting its popularity. Only there are two LARCs ever installed and used: one in Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and others in the US Navy Research and Development Center in Washington D.C.

Second generation computers replaced machine language with assemblies. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations to replace binary code. In the early 1960s, starting emerging second generation computers that are successful in business, in universities, and in government. These second generation computers are computers that completely using transistors. They also had the components that computers are associated with today: printers, diskette storage, memory, operating system, and programs.

3. Third generation computers ( 1964 – early 80s )

Although the transistor is superior in many ways to the vacuum tube, however transistors generate considerable heat, which can potentially damage the internal parts of the computer. Quartz rock (quartz rock) eliminate this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer in Texas Instrument, developing integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combines three electrical components  onic in a a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. In later scientists managed to fit more components into a single chip is called a semiconductor. As a result, the computer becomes gets smaller because the components can be packed into the chip.

Another third-generation computer advancement is the use of systems (Operating System) that allows the machine to run different programs simultaneously with one program the main controller that monitors and coordinates computer memory.

4. Fourth generation computers (early 80s – ???)

After IC, the development goal becomes clearer: shrink the size circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) can load hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components in a single chip. Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) improves the number becomes millions. The ability to install such many components in a chip that is half the size of a chip coins pushed down the price and size of computers. That matter also increase the work power, efficiency and reliability of the computer. Chip The Intel 4004 created in 1971 brought advances to IC by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and input/output controls) on a single chip very small. Previously, IC was made to do a certain task specific one. Now, a microprocessor can be produced and then programmed to meet all the desired needs.

Soon, every household appliance is like a microwave ovens, televisions, and cars with electronic fuel injection are equipped with microprocessor.

5. Fifth generation computers (future)

Many advances in the field of computer design and technology are increasingly allows the manufacture of fifth generation computers. Two advances engineering which is mainly parallel processing capability, which will replace the non-Neumann model. The non-Neumann model will be replaced with a system capable of coordinating multiple CPUs to work simultaneously. Another advance is superconducting technology which allows the flow of electricity without any resistance, which later can speed up the speed of information.

Japan is a country that is famous for socializing jargon and projects fifth generation computers. The ICOT Institute (Institute for new Computers) Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Lots of news states that this project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bringa new change in the world’s computerized paradigm. We are waiting for information which one is more valid and fruitful.


The development of human civilization is accompanied by the development of ways delivery of information known as information technology. The development of computers is distinguished before 1940 and after 1940. Before 1940, computer equipment or calculators were still simple. After 1940, computers used vacuum tubes and transistors as the main components used to increase the performance of the computer. 

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